Christmas Truce, 1914

On Christmas Eve in 1914, an estimated 100,000 soldiers on both sides of the trenches along the Western Front engaged in an unofficial truce which continued to Christmas Day.

Months earlier, World War I began. The prospect of war was exciting, but soon there was a stalemate on the Western Front between the Central and Allied Powers. The troops were ordered to dig into trenches which were poorly constructed and in which soldiers suffered deplorable conditions. Enthusiasm for the war waned in these fruitless months.

However, morale was temporarily restored in December 1914 when British and German troops received Christmas gifts from their countries and families. A feeling of good will spread throughout the trenches and on Christmas Eve spontaneous truces began to occur along the Western Front.

Together, British and German soldiers sang carols, exchanged gifts, and played soccer. The events of the truce are documented in various soldiers’ diaries. Here, German soldier Kurt Zehmisch describes his experience:

The English brought a soccer ball from the trenches, and pretty soon a lively game ensued.  How marvellously wonderful, yet how strange it was.  The English officers felt the same way about it.  Thus Christmas, the celebration of Love, managed to bring mortal enemies together as friends for a time.

In addition to the fraternizing and festivities, members of both sides made use of the truce to go into No Man’s Land and bury their dead. Thus, the truce was both a sweet and somber time.

These spontaneous truces amongst soldiers were frowned upon by some  military officials. In fact, there was never again a ceasefire on Christmas during World War I because war officials made it clear they would prosecute soldiers who initiated, or participated in, another truce.

This is one of my favorite historical events in history because it demonstrates the humanity that can endure in times of war. There is a 2005 French film called Joyeux Noël (Merry Christmas) that depicts the events of the Christmas Truce. I believe the movie is available for streaming through Netflix and Amazon Prime if you’re interested.

Have a great holiday!

A Visit From St. Nicholas, 1823

Author Note: Sorry for the lack of posts lately. Things got really busy at the end of the semester, but I am finally back and ready to write about history again!

‘Twas the day before the night before Christmas in 1823 that the poem “A Visit from St. Nicholas” was published in a New York newspaper. Today, the poem- which also goes by the names “‘Twas the Night Before Christmas” and “The Night Before Christmas”- is attributed to American poet Clement Clarke Moore who is said to have written the poem for his children. Its opening lines are some of the most recognizable lines in American poetry:

‘Twas the night before Christmas, when all through the house
Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse;
The stockings were hung by the chimney with care,
In hopes that St. Nicholas soon would be there…
Moore published the beloved children’s poem anonymously because he did not want to be associated with it. You see, Moore was very scholarly and did not want the poem to tarnish his reputation. The poem grew in popularity and in 1844, Moore included “A Visit From St. Nicholas” in his Poems, thus taking credit for the poem. However, not everyone believes that Moore wrote the poem. Others, namely Major Henry Livingston, Jr., have been credited with writing the poem.

Early depiction of Saint Nicholas.

Regardless of who wrote the poem, “A Visit From St. Nicholas” has largely influenced the popular image of Santa Claus and established the names and number of his reindeer.
Happy Christmas to all, and to all a good night!